Updated: May 17, 2022
Obesity is a disease caused by the accumulation of excessive amounts of fat in the body.
It is not a concern about aesthetic appearance, but rather a medical problem that increases the risk of developing diseases and other health problems, including heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and some cancers.
But the good thing is that a simple weight loss from 5 to 10% of excess weight can protect the gym itself from health problems associated with obesity.
Body mass index is the measure in diagnosing obesity, and BMI is measured by dividing weight in kilograms by the square of height in metres.
Mass index = weight (kg) / (height in metres) 2
However, BMI does not directly measure the amount of fat, as some muscular athletes are overweight due to increased muscle mass, while the percentage of body fat is very low.
There is also a so-called normal weight obesity, in which the percentage of fat is high and muscle mass is very low, and the weight is in the normal range.
Obesity occurs as a result of eating more calories, which exceed the daily burning rate of the body with the usual daily physical activities, so those calories are stored in the form of excess body fat.
Genetic factors and genes responsible for appetite, the fat that the body stores and where it is distributed, and how efficiently the body converts those fats into energy, as well as how fats are burned during exercise.
Age. Obesity can occur at any age, but the risk of obesity increases with age; As a result of changing hormones and lack of physical activity with a decrease in the rate of burning, as a result of a decrease in muscle mass in the body.
Socio-economic factors such as lack of safe places to walk or exercise or lack of access to healthy foods, as well as if the person is surrounded by friends or relatives who are obese.
Lifestyle factors, such as lack of activity, inactivity, and an unhealthy high-calorie diet, which lacks vegetables, fruits, and high-fat foods such as: fast food, high food portions and liquid calories such as soft drinks.
Some diseases such as: - hypothyroidism, increased adrenal gland activity, or some mental illnesses, as well as arthritis, which in turn leads to a lack of movement and physical activity.
Some medications such as: cortisone, antidepressants, seizure medications, and some diabetes medications.
Other factors such as: lack of sleep, smoking cessation, pregnancy and childbirth (but breastfeeding contributes to excessive weight loss during pregnancy), and repeated failed attempts to lose weight lead to rapid recovery and weight gain.
Obese patients are more susceptible to the following diseases:-
Heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, type 2 diabetes.
Some cancerous tumors such as: - tumors of the uterus, ovaries, breast, colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, kidneys and prostate.
Respiratory problems such as: asthma and sleep apnea.
Digestion problems, stomach ulcers, liver disease and cholecystitis.
Common problems such as: irregular menstruation, infertility, infertility, or erectile dysfunction in men.
Arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout.
Obesity increases the risk of severe complications from infection with the Coronavirus, such as respiratory complications and the need for intensive care.
Impact on the existence of life, feelings of inadequacy, depression, emotional and social isolation, discomfort in the work environment or access to jobs, lack of appropriate clothing that the patient is satisfied with.
Exercising regularly at a rate of 150 to 300 minutes per week of brisk walking or swimming
Follow a healthy diet
Three moderate meals a day with two snacks between meals
Eat more low-calorie foods, such as low-sugar vegetables and fruits, and whole grains
Less fat, carbs, sweets and soft drinks
Monitor your weight regularly, at least once a week
Review of previous weight and attempts to lose weight
Types and quantities of granular foods and degrees of appetite control
Chronic conditions and medications used
Family illnesses and chronic diseases
General physical examination, pulse, temperature and respiratory rate
Examination of the heart, lungs and abdomen
Calculation of body mass index and waist circumference, which is normal in women less than 89 cm, and in men less than 102 cm
Blood tests, liver, kidney and thyroid function with complete blood picture, blood sugar and cholesterol level
There are three main goals of obesity treatment:
The first goal: - Not gaining weight, and it is achieved by eating balanced food in which the proportion of calories is moderate from proteins, carbohydrates and fats without an increase in saturated fats and sugars.
The second goal: - moderate weight loss over a period of six months, which is achieved by reducing the amount of fat in food to a minimum with moderation in eating carbohydrates and proteins. This is the safest, most effective and sustainable method.
The third goal: - Maintaining an ideal weight for life by modifying nutritional and sports behaviour.
Cut calories by 1200-1500 for women, and 1500-1800 for men.
Low-sugar fruits and vegetables, reduce salt and added sugar.
Carbohydrates from whole grains (brown bread and oats).
Low-fat protein such as white meat (fish and birds), legumes (beans, lentils and soy), or low-fat red meat.
Few useful fats (olive, canola or nut oils)
Doing exercise or activities.
Gradually increase physical activity and try to reach 10,000 steps per day.
Weight-loss drugs, and should be taken under the supervision of a nutritionist.
Laparoscopic gastric balloon installation, and this is a temporary procedure that contributes to reducing weight from 5-20% of excess weight for a period not exceeding 6 months.
Contact Dr. Tarek Shokry Abouollo clinic if you are curious to know more.